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Ain Classification of Power Adapters

Power adapters can be divided into AC/DC and DC/DC converters, which are used as secondary power sources. The design technology and production process are mature and standardized at home and abroad, and have been recognized by users. However, AC/DC primary power supply meets more complex technical problems and process manufacturing problems in the process of modularization due to its own characteristics. The structure and characteristics of power adapter are described.

DC/DC class power adapter

DC/DC power adapter converts fixed DC voltage into variable DC voltage, also known as DC chopper chopper L. DCDC power adapter waveform has two working modes: one is that the pulse width modulation mode T is unchanged, and the other is that the frequency modulation mode t is unchanged, and the other is that the frequency modulation mode T is changed.

(1) Buck circuit - Buck chopper, whose average output voltage Uo is less than the input voltage UD, has the same polarity in and out;

(2) Boost circuit - boost chopper, whose average output voltage Uo is greater than the input voltage UD, has the same polarity in and out;

(3) The average output voltage Uo of Buck-Boost chopper is larger or smaller than the input voltage;

(4) Cuk circuit - step-down or step-up chopper, whose output average voltage Uo is greater or less than the input voltage UD, polarity input and output is opposite, inductance transmission.

Today's soft-switching technology has led to a qualitative leap in DC/DC converters. On the contrary, VICOR Power Supply Adapter Company of the United States has designed various ECI soft-switching DC/DC converters manufactured by capacitive transmission. Their maximum output power is 300W600W800W, the corresponding power density is 6.2W/cm310W/cm317W/cm3, and the efficiency is 80%~90% of the latest high-frequency electric power converter introduced by Nemic Lambda Company of Japan, which adopts soft-switching technology. RM series of source adapter modules, whose switching frequency is 200~300 kHz and power density has reached 27W/cm3, uses synchronous rectifier (mos-fet instead of Schottky diode) to improve the efficiency of the whole circuit to 90%.

Power adapter AC/DC converter

AC/DC converter converts AC to DC, and its power and current flow can be bidirectional. The conversion of power current to load is called "rectification", and the transmission of power current from load to power source is called "active inversion". AC/DC converter input 50/60 Hz AC current, must be rectified and filtered, relatively large filter electrolytic capacitor is essential. At the same time, due to security problems, such as ULCCEE standards and EMC instructions (such as IEC, FCC, CSA), AC input must be filtered by EMC and the use of safety-compliant components, which limits the further miniaturization of AC/DC power supply. In addition, because of the internal high frequency, high voltage and high current switching action, it is more difficult to solve the EMC problem, which also puts forward high requirements for the design of internal high density installation circuit. For the same reason, high voltage. High current switching increases power loss, which limits the modularization process of AC/DC converter. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt the optimal design method of power supply system in order to make its work efficiency reach a certain degree of satisfaction.

AC/DC converter can be divided into half-wave circuit and full-wave circuit according to the connection mode of the circuit; according to the control characteristics of the circuit, it can be divided into three categories: uncontrollable, half-controlled and full-controlled; according to the number of power supply phases, it can be divided into single-phase, three-phase and multi-phase; according to the working quadrant of the circuit, it can be divided into one quadrant, two quadrant, three quadrant and four quadrant.


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